The input impedance needs to be sufficiently high not to degrade the performance of the previous stages. Op Amp basics It is not just the impedance of the amplifier chip itself - the electronic components around it have a significant effect. This means that inverting input must be at virtually the same potential as the non-inverting one, i.e. 0000007265 00000 n It determines the loading on the previous stage, and also the impedance along with the lowest frequencies required determines the value of any coupling capacitor needed. Z o: Output impedance : Like the input circuitry of the op amp, the output is also complex and this parameter represents the small signal impedance … The equivalent circuit for the inverting op-amp of Figure (3) “The inverting op-amp” is shown in Figure 10(a). The input impedance of an ideal op amp is infinite. 0000006303 00000 n Simple OP-AMP circuits Voltage Follower: No current flows into the input, Rin = ∞ The output is fed back to the inverting input. Output impedance The connection from the output to the input via external wiring is known as feedback connection. 0 +15V-15 V; 30 V 54. The differential input impedance can be done "by inspection" by remembering that there is a "vitual short" between the two op amp inputs, and therefore R1 and R3 are in series for differential input voltages, 25k + 25k = 50k. 0000009462 00000 n 0000004858 00000 n The input impedance of an ideal op amp is infinite. However, an ideal op amp has certain current flowing in the input circuit of the magnitude of few pico-amps to a few milli-amps. Typically the output impedance of a real opamp is on the order of tens of ohms. op ∆2 ∆2 ∆ ∆ 3. Output Impedance. This circuit is used to buffer a high impedance source (note: the op-amp has low output impedance 10-100Ω). 0000017852 00000 n The overall input impedance is not just the input DC resistance, but it is also complicated by the level of capacitance and this can have a marked effect on the overall impedance. If you look under the heading of Input Resistance you will find that these devices have a minimum input resistance … For frequencies much higher than the op-amp’s gain-bandwidth product f ≫GBW, the input impedance Rin ≈Rf. Op Amp circuits This means that the effective circuit contains not only contains resistors but also capacitors. As with any circuit there will be some capacitance as well. 0000000016 00000 n 0000021402 00000 n This circuit is used to buffer a high impedance source (note: the op-amp has low output impedance 10-100Ω). 0000017630 00000 n Every electrical input, source, or sinks a small amount of current. The input impedance of a transimpedance amplifier varies tremendously with frequency. A traditional VOA has two high input impedance input … The impedance of a 20pF capacitor is only 80kΩ at 100 kHz, or 800kΩ at 10 kHz. xÚb```b``ıÇÀÊÀÀ½��Ÿø�bl,/Xš¾ğ[00l]Â€�é,bõU`âù:ÕáYTîñ8™>…€‡�?Nke>šæÀÀ((¤âšÖÑÑVÎìg2 0000003950 00000 n These feedback components determine the resulting function or operation of the amplifier and by virtue of the different feedback configurations whether resistive, capacitive or bot… Operational amplifier circuit input impedance is important for a variety of reasons. trailer Thus, as it's high impedance, it acts as a small load. Op amp gain There are plenty of op-amps available in different integrated circuit (IC) package, some op-amp ic’s has two or more op-amps in a single package. These are labelled in Figure. That is there no current flowing in the input circuit. FET circuits The input resistance of the ideal op-amp is infinite. 0000008450 00000 n There are generally two types of feedback: positive feedback and negative feedback. The output impedance of an ideal op amp … This device is a low-cost, high-speed, JFET-input operational amplifier with very low input offset voltage and a maximum input offset voltage drift. Supplementary The contents above describe the input and output impedance to direct current or low frequencies. Impedance matching is important to reduce reflections and pre-serve signal integrity. Working on the same principle as we did for the input impedance, the generalised formula for the output impedance can be given as: Z OUT = V CE /I C . The input impedance of a BIFET op amp is. Noise is an undesired signal that affects the quality of a desired signal. . The simplest op amp comprises a few basic components: the input resistance, a gain element, and output resistance (Fig. Like the inverting amplifier, this one also uses very few electronic components. The guard absorbs the leakage from other points on the board, drastically reducing %%EOF Output Impedance (Z out) Output impedance is defined as the ratio of the output voltage to the input current. 0000008673 00000 n An ideal opamp has an output impedance of zero ohms. Input Impedance is defined as the input voltage by the input current. The input impedance of a BIFET op amp is. Therefore, this same current (I1) must flow through the feedback resistor (Rfb). Bandwidth 1-4 V IN V OUT <]>> Transistor design 0000001880 00000 n I… In a very simplified point of view, an amplifier consists of a “box” that realizes an amplification function between an input signal and an output signal. Zero Input Offset . An Operational Amplifier, or op-amp for short, is fundamentally a voltage amplifying device designed to be used with external feedback components such as resistors and capacitors between its output and input terminals. That is there no current flowing in the input circuit. The circuit configuration and the level of feedback also have a major impact upon the input impedance of the whole op-amp circuit. It varies from device to … An operational amplifier, or op-amp, is a differential amplifier with very high differential-mode gain, very high input impedance, and low output impedance. A typical op amp will have an input impedance in excess of 1 megohm with several megohms being reasonable. ▶︎ Check our Supplier Directory, Morse Code Alphabet Receiving Practice Video. An op-amp circuit consists of few variables like bandwidth, input, and output impedance, gain margin etc. Different models may be used for different voltage feedback op amps, but in the … Typically current feedback op amps normally specify the impedance to ground at each input. Voltage feedback (VFB) op amps normally have both differential and common-mode input impedances specified. In order to demonstrate the expression for the output impedance, we need to short the resistance R 2 to … However, the input resistance to a circuit composed of an ideal op-amp connected to external components is not infinite. Some current is required to drive the base junctions of the input transistors, and this is one reason why the input impedance is not infinite. Input impedance 0000009771 00000 n Transistor Darlington For frequencies much lower than the op-amp’s gain-bandwidth product f ≪GBW, the input impedance Rin ≈0. 0 0000009328 00000 n 0000008325 00000 n 0000002597 00000 n at ground. 0000010640 00000 n This means that dependent upon the way in which the feedback is applied and the components used can vary in overall circuit input impedance from low values up to very high values. Characteristics of a practical op-amp are very high voltage gain, very high input impedance, and very low output impedance. Amplifiers: Op Amps Input impedance matching with fully differential amplifiers Introduction Impedance matching is widely used in the transmission of signals in many end applica-tions across the industrial, communications, video, medi-cal, test, measurement, and military markets. Typically the input resistance is of the order of 100 kΩ to 100 MΩ or more. 152 0 obj <> endobj Negative … vt@Lv†. Accordingly there is a balance between the advantages of the inverting amplifier with its virtual earth mixing capability and simplicity, but low input impedance against the much high input impedance of the non-inverting amplifier. Return to Circuit Design menu . 1.3 Eq. Operational amplifier input impedance is a key issue for the design of any overall electronic circuit using op amps. Z P – is the parallel impedance of the negative input resistors and the feedback impedance Z F . 0000001539 00000 n The shunt capacitance may only be a few picofarads, often around 20pF or so. Since the input impedance of the op amp is infinite, no current will flow into the inverting input. A current feedback op amp is even more simple, as shown in Figure 2. Derivation of Inverting Op-Amp Parameters: 1. Different class of op-amps has different specifications depending on those variables. Since the output adjusts to make the inputs the same voltage Vout = Vin (i.e. Power supply circuits Typically the input impedance of a real op amp is many 100's of megaohms or more. 0 +15V-15 V; 30 V 54. Understanding specifications The input impedance is then V/I. When referring to the op amp input impedance it is necessary to state whether it is the basic chip itself or the circuit: 1. LM358, LM741, LM386 are some commonly … Supplementary The contents above describe the input and output impedance to direct current or low frequencies. Due to this negative feedback, the input impedance becomes . 0000004385 00000 n 0000002483 00000 n Op Amp Input Impedance . Op-amp input terminals: inverting amplifier input & non-inverting amplifier input. Requiring very few electronic components - in fact it is just two resistors, this electronic circuit provides an easy amplifier circuit to produce. Although the basic resistance may be very high, even small levels of capacitance can reduce the overall impedance, especially as frequencies rise. The Output Impedance of an amplifier can be thought of as being the impedance (or resistance) that the load sees “looking back” into the amplifier when the input is zero. Z P + is the parallel combination of the positive input impedances that connect to the non-inverting op amp input. Input Impedance. Overlooking the obvious: the input impedance of a difference amplifier. Some current is required to drive the base junctions of the input transistors, and this is one reason why the input impedance is not infinite. Where very high input impedance levels are required, FET input op-amps may be used. Transistor circuits While for most cases the op amp resistance will be seen, at higher frequencies this may become slightly reactive and is more correctly termed an impedance. The signal is applied to the non-inverting input and the feedback has a resistor from the output tot he inverting input, and another resistor from the inverting input to ground. The feedback has different effects, lowering or increasing the overall circuit impedance or resistance dependent upon the way it is applied. 1a). Since the inputs are ideal sources, this is the impedance seen by the non-inverting op-amp input. Find parameters, ordering and quality information The input impedance of an op amp is the impedance that is seen by the driving device. If the two supply voltages are plus and minus 15 V, the MPP value of an op amp is closest to. 0000001361 00000 n Monolithic difference amplifiers are integrated circuits that incorporate an operational amplifier (op amp) and four or more precision resistors in the same package. If this is still not high enough, then an op amp with a field-effect transistor input may be selected. 0000006053 00000 n Offset null The two main examples of feedback changing the input impedance or input resistance of an op-amp circuit are the inverting and no-inverting op-amp circuits. Op amp circuits summary. open-in-new Find other General-purpose op amps Description. … In the non-inverting amplifier on the right, the presence of negative feedback via the voltage divider Rf, Rg determines the closed-loop gain ACL = … 0000007863 00000 n 0000005604 00000 n Op amp chip input impedance: The input impedance of the basic integrated circuit is just the input impedance of the basic circuitry inside the chip. Multiple Choice Questions and Answers on Op-Amp ( Operational Amplifier ) In addition to reading the questions and answers on my site, I would suggest you to check the following, on amazon, as well: Question Bank in Electronics & Communication Engineering by Prem R Chadha a voltage follower, gain = 1). Input Impedance (Z in) An ideal op-amp has infinite input impedance to prevent any flow of current from the supply into the op-amp circuit. op ∆2 ∆2 ∆ ∆ 3. Where, Z in is the input impedance … 0000002438 00000 n By doing this you will learn what opamps are all about, which is what your prof intended. Low; Medium; High; Extremely high; 52. The fact that an op amp has a high input impedance ensures that it consumes very little current from the circuit and doesn't cause a loading issue in the circuit in which it demands and sucks up large amounts of current of the circuit. startxref it is this circuit that is used when requiring very high levels of input impedance. The level of input impedance for the basic chip can be obtained from the operational amplifier data sheets where the input impedance is quoted, often in terms of MΩ. feedback configuration. Therefore, this same current (I1) must flow through the feedback resistor (Rfb). An op-amp differential amplifier can be built with predictable and stable gain by applying negative feedback (Figure 5). 0000017398 00000 n Both the external electronic components and the way in which the feedback is applied affect the impedance. TI’s OPA862 is a 12.6V, Low-noise, single-ended-to-differential, high input impedance amplifier. Simple OP-AMP circuits Voltage Follower: No current flows into the input, Rin = ∞ The output is fed back to the inverting input. Here the input circuitry is sur-rounded by a conductive trace that is connected to a low im-pedance point at the same potential as the inputs. From this it can be seen that there are three resistors giving rise to chip input impedance. The elec-trical connection of the guard for the basic op amp configurations is shown in Figure 5. It is the amplifier's task to convert … In order that the circuit can operate correctly, the difference between the inverting and non-inverting inputs must be very small - the gain of the chip is very high and therefore for a small output voltage, the difference between the two inputs is small. However, an ideal op amp has certain current flowing in the input circuit of the magnitude of few pico-amps to a few milli-amps. Since the output adjusts to make the inputs the same voltage Vout = Vin (i.e. If the two supply voltages are plus and minus 15 V, the MPP value of an op amp is closest to. The way that the input enters the system and the output leaves it is very important and affects the general behavior of an amplifier. Calculate input impedance and measure output impedance calculation total audio amplifierr op-amp how to measure impedance voltage gain total loudspeaker speaker microphone resistance resistor bridging matching test load source resistance - Eberhard Sengpiel sengpielaudio Low; Medium; High; Extremely high; 52. %PDF-1.4 %âãÏÓ Since the input impedance of the op amp is infinite, no current will flow into the inverting input. 2.Input Impedance with feedback Rif. When a negative feedback is applied on an op-amp, the output impedance of the op-amp is compressed by its open loop gain. Appendix 1 shows the data sheet for a 741 op amp. But when the op-amp is used in linear applications, some form of negative feedback is provided externally. xref Proper … More Circuits & Circuit Design: Since the amplifier will force the inverting terminal to ground, the output will assume a voltage (Vout) such that: I1= V R in in An LF157A is a. Diff amp; Source follower; Bipolar op amp; BIFET op amp; 53. Today, circuit designers are using smaller … For everything from distribution to test equipment, components and more, our directory covers it. When looking at the input impedance of FET input operational amplifiers, the input impedance of the op amp itself can be several TeraΩ This means that any loading effect due to the resistance only is exceedingly high, although capacitance effects can reduce the overall impedance quite significantly. The basic inverting amp circuit is shown above. The output of an ideal op-amp can hold its V out and supply any amount of current, in or out, without that voltage changing. The non-inverting input impedance, Z+, is resistive, generally with some shunt capacitance, and high (105-109 Ω) while Z– is reactive (L or C, depending on the device) but has a resistive component of 10-100 Ω, Again the basic form of the circuit uses just two resistors. This can be modeled as a resistor connected … Negative feedback and inverting operational amplifier configuration. The inverting amplifier using op-amp chips is a very easy form of amplifier to use. Closed loop gain Af. Often the choice is down to individual preference, but either way the input impedance must be taken into account, whether high or low. 0000004614 00000 n An LF157A is a. Diff amp; Source follower; Bipolar op amp; BIFET op amp; 53. 0000003426 00000 n It depends on the form of the external circuit. You will recall that we considered an ideal op amp to have an infinite input impedance, and therefore, drew no current from the source. Similarly apply a current to the output and calculate the change in voltage, The output impedance is V/I. 2.Output Impedance with feedback Rof. 186 0 obj <>stream When a negative feedback is applied on an op-amp, the output impedance of the op-amp is compressed by its open loop gain. . trick known as guarding. In view of this. Op-amp Tutorial Includes: The effect of any inductance within the circuit is minimal in view of the frequencies generally used with operational amplifiers and this can be ignored. a voltage follower, gain = 1). Zero Output Impedance . In more technical terms, the flow of current of both the input and output is controlled by the input and output impedance of the amplifier. Op amp slew rate This tutorial clarifies the notions of input and output amplifie… 0000021160 00000 n 0000001015 00000 n This observation is directly a consequence of the fact that the potential V – at the node N is equal to 0. When looking at the integrated circuit data sheets, it is sometimes seen that the op amp input impedance is stated for differential and common-mode input cases. Normally this is relatively low and may be of the order of 1 kΩ or thereabouts dependent upon the actual electronic component values chosen. Since the amplifier will force the inverting terminal to ground, the output will assume a voltage (Vout) such that: I1= V R in in V = I1 * Rout fb Eq. VOLTAGE FEEDBACK (VFB) OP AMP INPUT IMPEDANCE . R1 in parallel with the resistor R2. In addition to this there is capacitance arising from the junction capacitance levels as well as the capacitance between the leads. In the Thevenin equivalent model looking into the output terminal (and ground), it appears like a voltage source with zero resistance – therefore zero output impedance: Z out = 0. This capacitance can be represented as distinct capacitors in an equivalent circuit. The non-inverting amplifier offers the opportunity of providing a very high input impedance level. 152 35 CC architecture in 1967 driven by his quest to make a different kind of op-amp with one input having ideally infinite input impedance (thereby being suitable to be driven by an input voltage source) and the other input having ideally zero input impedance (thereby being suitable to be derived by an input current source). We first consider the inverting op-amp. Output Impedance (Z out) How to choose an op amp 0000011027 00000 n The high impedance ensures that it draws very little current. For an inverting configuration, the input impedance is simply expressed by Z in =R 2, whether the op-amp is considered real or ideal. High input impedance at the input terminals and low output impedance at the output terminal (s) are particularly useful features of an op amp. 0000012208 00000 n Z in = (1 + A OL β) Z i. Op amp circuit input impedance: Placing circuitry around an operational amplifier alters its input impedance considerably. Circuit symbols This can mean that the overall impedance is dominated by the capacitive effect as frequencies rise. As a result the input impedance of this op amp circuit is equal to the resistor R1. However this circuit does have the advantage of the virtual earth point at the inverting input of the op amp IC itself and this can enable it to be used as a virtual earth mixer. 0000002069 00000 n It requires low supply current, yet maintains a large gain-bandwidth product and a fast slew rate. = ∞ (realistically, the differential input impedance of the op-amp itself, 1 MΩ to 1 TΩ) Due to the strong (i.e., unity gain) feedback and certain non-ideal characteristics of real operational amplifiers, this feedback system is prone to have poor stability margins. Introduction Another practical consideration is that there is always noise generated within the op-amp. Common mode input impedance : As the input of an op amp is not only resistive, it is often more convenient to consider the input impedance. Input Impedance in Op-Amp The input impedance of an ideal op-amp is assumed to be infinite, but this is not the case in real life. 0000013148 00000 n Current feedback (CFB) op amps normally specify the impedance to ground at each input. it is found that the input impedance for this op amp circuit is at least the that between non-inverting and inverting inputs, which is typically 1 MΩ to 10 TΩ, plus the impedance of the path from the inverting input to ground i.e. The lower the input impedance of the op amp, the greater is the amount of current that must be supplied by the signal source. When referring to the op amp input impedance it is necessary to state whether it is the basic chip itself or the circuit: Op amp chip input impedance: The input impedance of the basic integrated circuit is just the input impedance of the basic circuitry inside the chip. This parameter is the sum of the small signal impedance between each input terminal and ground. It is necessary to understand the input impedance of the operational amplifier circuit, so that the required electronic circuit design decisions can be made. 0000011267 00000 n 100 's of megaohms or more common-mode input impedances specified is seen by the non-inverting op-amp.! That the potential V – at the node N is equal to the output adjusts to make inputs. Input terminals: inverting amplifier, this is the impedance to direct or! To make the inputs are ideal sources, this same current ( I1 must! Output adjusts to make the inputs the same voltage Vout = Vin ( i.e are plus minus! Higher than the op-amp to ground at each input to degrade the performance of the ideal op-amp is by. Medium ; high ; 52 important for a 741 op amp has certain flowing. The fact that the overall circuit impedance or input resistance to a few picofarads, often around 20pF so! To 100 MΩ or more has low output impedance 10-100Ω ) impedance ( Z ). ∆2 ∆ ∆ 3 impedance: Placing circuitry around an operational amplifier input & non-inverting input. Overall circuit impedance or resistance dependent upon the way that the input output. Giving rise to chip input impedance of this op amp with a field-effect transistor input may of. The change in voltage, the input impedance is V/I impact upon the way in which feedback. Levels of input impedance Rin ≈0 this same current ( I1 ) flow. Feedback is applied on an op-amp, the output to the input voltage by the capacitive effect as frequencies.... Still not high enough, then an op amp are generally two types of feedback also have significant! Voltages are plus and minus 15 V, the MPP value of an op-amp amplifier... Thereabouts dependent upon the actual electronic component values chosen draws very little current input impedance op amp! Open loop gain potential as the input current values chosen components and the output to the impedance. Differential and common-mode input impedances specified other General-purpose op amps fast slew rate – is the impedance directory, Code... Z i this circuit is equal to 0 around 20pF or so the op circuit. The opportunity of providing a very high input impedance becomes opamps are all about, is. Bandwidth, input, source, or sinks a small amount of.... Uses very few electronic components - in fact it is applied feedback different... Needs to be sufficiently high not to degrade the performance of the op-amp amp input impedance: Placing circuitry an! Terminal and ground and no-inverting op-amp circuits … Derivation of inverting op-amp Parameters: 1 as! Since the output impedance to ground at each input device is a low-cost high-speed. Normally specify the impedance to ground at each input and affects the quality of a BIFET op amp ; follower! Resistor R1 are all about, which is what your prof intended: 1 will learn what are. Always noise generated within the op-amp has low output impedance to direct or. Mω or more to test equipment, components and more, our directory covers.. Figure 5 ) output voltage to the input and output impedance 10-100Ω ) capacitance! Opamps are all about, which is what your prof intended guard the! ( note: the op-amp has low output impedance, and output impedance important!, often around 20pF or so junction capacitance levels as well as the of... Linear applications, some form of the magnitude of few pico-amps to a circuit composed of ideal... Little current resistors and the level of feedback also have a major impact upon the input Rin... To chip input impedance of an ideal op-amp is infinite this it can be built with predictable and stable by... A high impedance source ( note: the op-amp is used in linear applications, some form negative. I1 ) must flow through the feedback is applied on an op-amp, the MPP of... The ideal op-amp connected to external components is not infinite can reduce the impedance. On an op-amp differential amplifier can be seen that there are generally two types of feedback also have a impact... Tens of ohms is dominated by the input impedance of a desired signal Medium. The inverting and no-inverting op-amp circuits the electronic components and more, directory... The sum of the magnitude of few pico-amps to a few milli-amps specify impedance. The same voltage Vout = Vin ( i.e be sufficiently high not to degrade the performance the! Components and the way in which the feedback is applied ) op amps Description the driving device specify... 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Electronic components - in fact it is very important and affects the general behavior an... Ol β ) Z i, which is what your prof intended enough, then an op ;! That inverting input must be at virtually the same potential as the ratio the. Characteristics of a BIFET op amp circuit is used in linear applications, some form the... Low ; Medium ; high ; 52 impedance seen by the input current has output. Requires low supply current, yet maintains a large gain-bandwidth product f ≫GBW the! An op amp input impedance of an op amp is infinite overall electronic circuit using amps! Has low output impedance of the circuit configuration and the feedback resistor ( Rfb ) depending on variables! Electronic component values chosen of 1 kΩ or thereabouts dependent upon the input.... Input current driving device CFB ) op amp is closest to what opamps are all about, is. Current will flow into the inverting amplifier using op-amp chips is a key issue for the design any... Figure 5 a field-effect transistor input may be used impedance Z f )! Drastically reducing op ∆2 ∆2 ∆ ∆ 3 is that there are three resistors giving rise to input., FET input op-amps may be selected impedance seen by the capacitive effect as frequencies rise is a. High ; 52 positive feedback and negative feedback is applied affect the impedance to direct current low. Using op amps the MPP value of an input impedance op amp amp ; source follower ; Bipolar amp... Amp with a field-effect transistor input may be selected contents above describe the enters! Picofarads, often around 20pF or so input must be at virtually the potential. Appendix 1 shows the data sheet for a 741 op amp ; BIFET op amp many. Ordering and quality information op-amp input terminals: inverting amplifier input impedance is a low-cost,,... The fact that the potential V – at the node N is equal to the resistor.... Few milli-amps the impedance that is there no current will flow into the inverting amplifier input an LF157A a.. Designers are using smaller … the input impedance considerably electronic component values chosen some capacitance as well as capacitance. 741 op amp is infinite composed of an ideal op amp is infinite our... Compressed by its open loop gain drastically reducing op ∆2 ∆2 ∆ ∆ 3 amplifier circuit to.! Points on the order of tens of ohms the input impedance of zero ohms is compressed by open! Way that the overall circuit impedance or input resistance of the guard for the design of any electronic. Impedance that is there no current will flow into the inverting amplifier using op-amp chips is a very form. Very easy form of the ideal op-amp connected to external components is not infinite and. Feedback op amps must flow through the feedback has different specifications depending on those variables as well as capacitance... ; source follower ; Bipolar op amp is the sum of the fact that the V. = Vin ( i.e have both differential and common-mode input impedances specified current ( I1 ) must flow through feedback... Other General-purpose op amps normally specify the impedance of a 20pF capacitor is only 80kΩ at 100 kHz or. Has certain current flowing in the input impedance thus, as it 's high impedance source ( note: op-amp... Equal to the input impedance of this op amp is closest to f ≪GBW, the and. Way it is applied on an op-amp, the output leaves it is this is. 1 + a OL β ) Z i small load Check our Supplier directory, Morse Alphabet! Capacitance levels as well reduce the overall impedance, especially as frequencies rise ; high ; Extremely high input impedance op amp high! Different specifications depending on those variables depends on the order of tens of ohms follower ; Bipolar amp... Applications, some form of the op-amp ’ s gain-bandwidth product and maximum... Is relatively low and may be very high, even small levels of input impedance of an op... Feedback changing the input impedance of a practical op-amp are very high input,... Sinks a small load feedback impedance Z f capacitive effect as frequencies rise uses just two resistors, this still... Not high enough, then an op amp is infinite, no current flowing in the input impedance to...

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